Ion Exchangers


Most municipal water systems in the United States have hard water. Hard water is water that contains mineral salts of calcium and magnesium principally as bicarbonates, chlorides, sulfates, and sometimes iron. 

There are many problems associated with hard waters. For example hard water causes lime scale deposits in pipes and radiators. Soap does not dissolve in hard water and finally hard water is not good for drinking. Ion Exchangers are used to remove calcium and magnesium ions from water and substitute them with sodium ions or hydrogen ions.

 Project description:
Design and perform an experiment to demonstrate an ion exchange so that you will better understand how the chemical process of the ion exchange can remove undesired ions from water. You may optionally compare different natural and synthetic ion exchangers for their effectiveness.
 Details of this project:
More details or support for this project are available for the members of's web site. Material needed for experimentation can be purchased locally or online.
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